Written by Hannah Todd
HART distributes emergency aid to its partners as the need arises. When it does so HART has the ability and agility to do so rapidly with targeted relief. Even if the size of donation is much smaller than larger NGOs, feedback from our partners has reinforced the importance of this facility. For example, in South Sudan one of our partners told us: “You gave little but in time. Others gave more but it came too late.”
HART responded to the refugee crisis in South Sudan with emergency aid to its partners in Bahr-El-Ghazal, Wau. Funds were also given for the purchase of seeds and tools for cultivation, anticipating that food shortages would be exacerbated by the rainy season. The type of aid HART supplied here had one eye on the future as well as dealing with the immediate problems the community was experiencing. The delivery of appropriate relief in South Sudan is but one example of how need can be combined with the necessity for sustainability.
Traditionally the time gap between emergency aid being withdrawn and developmental aid being injected into a society by major donors has been too large.
The two forms of aid have been too rigidly divided: aid distribution should not just coincide with the outbreak of conflict or natural disasters (frequently exacerbated by conflict). Rather, if aid is to be preventative as well as palliative then it should be given in times of peace and stability as well as conflict and hardship. In other words emergency aid should be combined with developmental aid. It is during crises of leadership (that cause or are caused by humanitarian disasters) that the seeds of development should be sown.
HART makes a special effort to ask its partners to identify their priorities for aid, thereby giving them the dignity of choice and respecting their knowledge of the problems confronting their people. For example, in Jos, Nigeria, HART visited a Peace Initiative Project earlier this year that seeks to heal relations between Muslims and Christians in the region through teaching entrepreneurial skills. The project has since sent HART detailed accounts of their most urgent needs which range from desktop computers to basic carpentry equipment. HART regularly visits its target communities to highlight these needs, to gather first-hand evidence of human rights violations (for example, in South Kordofan), and to ensure that it is fulfilling its remit in the most responsible and appropriate way possible.
Part of HART’s strength is its small size which helps keep it focused on the individuals it works with. Of course, larger NGOs and donor governments cannot hope to replicate this level of extremely personal and flexible care because with increased size comes increased responsibility. But what they can do is to adopt some of the approaches HART uses to build these relationships and apply them at a high political level. It is precisely because at this level bilateral and multilateral aid make up the vast proportion of international aid that it is vital that the art of sustainability is mastered.
Many critics have argued that bilateral and multilateral aid given in the form of concessional loans and grants is unsustainable and should be reduced, if not cut off altogether. The problems they cite straddle the social (government corruption and patronage) and economic (trade barriers between neighbouring countries) and all ultimately come down to the exacerbation of aid dependency. This is precisely where the values behind locally-led aid and development initiatives become vital.
It is possible for the ‘partner model’ of aid and development exemplified by HART to be scaled up to a macroeconomic level.
For example, applied at an international level the observation that aid should be invested locally and for a finite amount of time could solve the growing convergence between concessional loans and grants in the realm of international aid. Not differentiating between these two mechanisms of aid distribution – assuming that a loan will eventually turn into a grant – instils a lack of initiative in recipient governments. There is no incentive for them to nurture a fledgling situation of prosperousness so that they can escape the reliance on in-flows of aid to which they have become accustomed.
HART’s Projects Coordinator, David Thomas, says that one of the joys of being involved in HART is to see people’s enthusiasm to rebuild their communities before they have to worry about their ‘track record’ to impress larger aid agencies. It is this spark that larger aid organisations as well as governments need to capitalise on to make aid go further and last longer. The enthusiasm and trust that HART nurtures in its relationship with its partners is the vital aspect of sustainable development that continues to elude major donors and hamper their drive towards eliminating aid dependency.
Sustainability is about scaling up successful models of development. If international governments do not begin to realise this and learn from the models provided by smaller organisations such as HART then we will find that “sustainability” – currently an ever-evolving buzzword within the world of development – is still being discussed as the major hurdle to development in another fifteen years.